Tuesday, July 29, 2008
New DAR Publication Highlights the Many Contributions of African Americans and American Indians in the Revolutionary War
An unprecedented new publication highlighting the contributions of African Americans and American Indians in America’s War for Independence is now available from the National Society Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR). The second edition of Forgotten Patriots – African American and American Indian Patriots of the Revolutionary War: A Guide to Service, Sources, and Studies, published in May 2008 by the DAR identifies over 6,600 names of African Americans and American Indians who contributed to American Independence and is a nearly five-fold expansion in pages over the 2001 edition. The 9” x 12” hardbound book with 872 pages contains details of the documented service of the listed Patriots, historical commentary on happenings of the time, an assortment of illustrations, and an extensive bibliography of research sources related to the topic.
As the title of the DAR publication suggests, the many contributions of African Americans and American Indians in the Revolutionary War have frequently been overlooked and have rarely been adequately recognized. Accordingly, Forgotten Patriots is a unique publication that offers an enormous amount of research and original sources, covers all regions during the years roughly from 1775 to 1783 and is distinctive in the fact that this variety of information is all compiled into one resource book. No other similar guide exists for the history of the participation of African Americans and American Indians in the Revolutionary War, which also includes an extensive bibliography referencing thousands of citations that can provide a roadmap for scholars, researchers and students seeking to discover even more information on the topic.
The book organizes its findings into chapters that include historical commentary, sources cited, names of identified Patriots and a bibliography directly related to each state and region of the country. Seven appendices are included to elaborate on topics not often addressed in other publications such as the challenges of documenting the color of participants in the American Revolution, using individual’s names as clues to finding Forgotten Patriots, the often discussed but never authoritatively verified number of minority participants in the Revolution, and information on how to contact the DAR with questions or to offer additional information and findings related to the topic.
While the majority of the content is reporting of fact as opposed to narrative, a number of interesting personal stories emerge as well. These stories provide insight into the individual aspirations, struggles and achievements of many other African American and American Indian Patriots for whom such documentation has been lost to time.
DAR Library Director, Eric G. Grundset, Editor and Project Manager of Forgotten Patriots, describes in the book’s introduction the “rewarding, informative, and captivating” work on the project and intended goals for the publication. “Since its founding in 1890, the National Society Daughters of the American Revolution has collected and published information about the American Revolution. Included in this tradition have been articles, grave markings, or placement of historical plaques that note the involvement of African Americans and American Indians in the struggle.” He goes on to explain that the hope is that this book will have the additional benefit of also encouraging the female descendents of these patriots to join the important volunteer and educational work of the DAR.
The introduction also emphasizes that the expanded second edition of Forgotten Patriots is “an exciting step forward in helping to document a segment of the effort that resulted in the creation of the United States of America,” but the work does not end with this publication. “Undoubtedly, there are many other minority patriots who remain undiscovered or for whom documentation does not yet exist.” It is hoped that the information contained in the Forgotten Patriots book will stimulate further research by many people. A special collection at the DAR Library in Washington, D.C., has been started that encompasses much of the documentation related to the subject of minority service in the American Revolution and is available to the public for research. “The DAR [also] welcomes additional information concerning any of the individuals identified in this publication or on others that have not been included,” Grundset writes.
“The subject of this book is essential to the work of the DAR to document the history of the role of all individuals in the Revolutionary War and to preserve it for future generations,” explains Grundset. “While the research to identify and document forgotten patriots will continue as part of the daily activities of the DAR, it is hoped that this work will spur others to undertake an examination of their ancestry and the rich heritage that has come to make up our great nation.”
Tuesday, July 22, 2008
One of the most famous cases in our (FBI) 100-year history celebrates an anniversary today: On July 22, 1934, the gangster John Dillinger was killed in Chicago, moments after leaving the Biograph Theater, where, ironically, he had watched a gangster film starring Clark Gable.
The day before, Purvis and Special Agent Samuel A. Cowley, who had been appointed by Director J. Edgar Hoover to head the Dillinger investigation, had met with a woman calling herself Anna Sage, a friend of Dillinger’s girlfriend, Polly Hamilton. She was hoping that her cooperation with the authorities would earn her reward money and keep her from being deported to her native Romania. She told Purvis that Dillinger planned to take both her and Hamilton to a Sunday evening movie at the Biograph or the Marbro.
Stakeouts were arranged for both theaters. A hand-written document from our Dillinger file, a diagram of the Biograph, illustrates the placement of some 20 men around the theater and across the street. The diagram shows the letters “A,” “B,” and “C” outside the theater box office, with an “X” next to each letter. A legend identifies the significance of the letters: “Dillinger companion,” “Dillinger,” “informant.”
The informant—Anna Sage—called Purvis at 8:30 p.m. that Sunday to say they were going to the Biograph. Two hours later, Dillinger emerged from the theater with his two companions. Purvis, standing nearby, lit a cigar. It was the signal for his men to move in. As they did, Dillinger realized what was happening and reached for his pistol. Agents fired, and Dillinger was hit. He staggered, then fell.
Dillinger’s death signaled the beginning of the end of the Gangster Era, but the nation’s fascination with those times lives on. A new movie about Dillinger, directed by Michael Mann, is scheduled for release next July. The film, Public Enemies, stars Johnny Depp as Dillinger and Christian Bale as Purvis.
Mann, a Chicago native, spared no expense to re-create the Biograph Theater and the look and feel of 1930s-era Chicago for the film. “Getting it visually right requires a lot of dedication,” he explains, thanking us for our “spectacular cooperation” in helping to make the film authentic.
On Lincoln Avenue, where the Biograph still stands, the film crew “essentially rented out the entire block,” Rice says. The façade of every building was redone to look exactly as it did on that steamy night when Dillinger went to see Manhattan Melodrama. Attention was paid to every detail, from the streetlights to the trolley tracks right down to replacing the bricks on the street.
Mann says the film also strives for “period-accurate psychology,” to help illuminate inner thoughts and motivations of Purvis and Dillinger. That process included talking with agents while doing research for the film. Their “zeal and passion,” Mann says, helped him understand just how badly Purvis wanted to catch Public Enemy #1.
Let us take another look at the exciting local and world changes going on in Fayetteville in the early 1900s. Modern changes are occurring in our town.
The Fayetteville News
April 9, 1909
The acetylene light, now lights our streets at night. For some time the town has suffered for this much needed necessity. Fayetteville is making strides forward that should not be checked and we are glad to see our mayor and cancel trying to keep the public
conveniences as near up with the times as possible.
Admiral Cervera Dead
Was commander of the Spanish Fleet in the Battle of Santiago,
Cuba on the outbreak of the War with the United States. He
sailed from Cape Verde Islands with 4 cruisers and 3 torpedo boat destroyers, in April 1898. Entered the harbor of Santiago, Cuba May 19 and lost his entire fleet off that Port July 3, in an attempt
to force his way through Admiral Sampson's blockading squadron.
Serum for diphtheria
Board of health ready to furnish anti-toxin.
Atlanta, Ga.- A sufficient amount of anti-toxin for diphtheria to
supply the wants of the entire state. Physicians may secure any amount, free of cost, by writing or telegraphing to the Secretary
of the Board, in care of the Laboratories in the State Capital.
Mr. John I Kerlin was elected Superintendent of our Sunday School last Sunday.
As Mr. Brown resigned being unable to attend regularly.
Miss Lizzie McEachern has returned from Athens where she has been in school several months.
Prisons everywhere are over crowded More Criminals an paupers are now confined in state and county institutions than ever before. Hard times and undesirable aliens are chiefly blamed.
researched and submitted by CB Glover
Saturday, July 19, 2008
Mr. Schiff: Hi, welcome to "FBI 100, A Closer Look." I'm Neal Schiff of the Bureau's Office of Public Affairs along with FBI Historian Dr. John Fox. John, over the first century the FBI has had many great cases, so different that it’s hard to rank them?
Dr. Fox: "Sure Neal. Anything from the investigations of potential German espionage in World War I through Dillinger and the Gangster Era, the breaking of Nazi espionage just before we entered World War II to some of our biggest cases of more recent years. We’ve had some great successes.”
Mr. Schiff: How did the FBI’s priorities change from the early days of bank robbery and car theft cases?
Dr. Fox: "Over the years we’ve always had duel responsibilities for protecting America’s national security and enforcing our federal criminal law. And over the years one side of that equation or the other has been more important. In World War II, national security was the top of our priority list. But it was only a couple of years before, when, just as you said, car thefts and bank robberies were at the top. How does it change? It’s a matter of our Presidents, Attorneys General, really ultimately what the American people are most concerned with. And it’s also what we see as the future; what kinds of security threats or what kind of crimes are becoming more of a danger and something that we really need to put more resources towards.”
Mr. Schiff: John, what’s the FBI’s greatest strength?
Dr. Fox: "Neal, over the years the FBI’s greatest strength is that because it has such a talented and educated force of agent and professional support; from the scientists to the analysts to specially-trained agents who can go into computer intrusions or the people who can gather the minutest quantities of evidence at the crime scene and analyze it and tell us the story of what happened. These people are able to adapt and change as we look back at what we’ve done; sometimes learn from our mistakes, learn from the successes that we have. Address the new issues as they are arising. Our people have been very good at changing with the times and building on what has been done before.”
Mr. Schiff: July 26, 2008, the FBI’s 100th anniversary. From the FBI’s Public Affairs office, along with Bureau Historian Dr. John Fox, I'm Neal Schiff with "FBI 100, A Closer Look."
Friday, July 18, 2008
Over the course of a century—during which we’ve been involved in just about every major event in U.S. history and had countless innovations and famous cases—it’s hard to pick just ten. But here, in chronological order, are our choices for the top ten moments in FBI history…
1) July 26, 1908 – The Bureau is Born
No surprise on this one. But what you may not know is that our origins were somewhat tentative and filled with political intrigue. By early 1908, Teddy Roosevelt’s Attorney General—Charles Bonaparte—was growing weary of borrowing investigators from other agencies for federal cases under his jurisdiction. When Congress outlawed that practice in May, he had no choice but to pull together his own corps of agents. On July 26, Bonaparte sent a memo to his department announcing this new “force of special agents.” It started small, with just 34 agents and no name. And it was considered something of an experiment by both Bonaparte and Congress. But over time the force started making a difference…and the rest is history.
2) May 10, 1924 – Hoover Takes the Helm
Appointed to clean up a scandal-plagued Bureau, 29-year-old Acting Director J. Edgar Hoover immediately began instituting a series of reforms that transformed the FBI into the professional law enforcement organization that it is today. Over the next decade, Hoover strengthened the organizational and hiring practices of the Bureau, created a central repository for criminal identification and criminal history records, instituted a technical laboratory (the forerunner of today’s FBI Lab), began gathering and reporting national crime stats, and fostered a rigorous training program for American and international law enforcement alike. Though often remembered more for controversies in his later years, Hoover played a vital role in lifting the overall capabilities and professionalism of the FBI and U.S. law enforcement.
3) June 17, 1933 – The Kansas City Massacre
It’s hard to imagine today, but for the Bureau’s first quarter-century agents weren’t allowed to make their own arrests, and they only carried weapons in limited cases. That began to change one shocking morning outside a train station in Kansas City, Missouri, when Charles “Pretty Boy” Floyd and other gangsters suddenly opened fire on a group of lawmen transporting an escaped con back to prison. Killed in the hail of bullets were two police officers, a police chief, and a Bureau special agent. The public was stunned by what became known as the “Kansas City Massacre,” and Congress responded within a year by authorizing special agents to carry guns, to make arrests, and to tackle a wider array of gangster crime, which has helped us protect the nation ever since.
In many ways, John Dillinger was the most notorious of the Depression-era gangsters, the leader of a ruthless band of gun-slinging bank robbers and crooks who was able to charm the press and American people into believing he was a harmless Robin Hood. Dillinger’s fame and ability to elude the law were reaching disastrous levels when we joined the hunt for him in the winter of 1933/1934. Despite a few stumbles along the way, Bureau agents tracked Dillinger down on July 22 and shot him dead in the streets of Chicago as he reached for his gun. The successful investigation catapulted the largely-unknown agency to worldwide fame and was the beginning of the end of the lawless gangster years.
5) June 26, 1939 – Getting Ready for War
More than two years before bombs fell on Pearl Harbor, the FBI was already preparing to protect the nation from its wartime enemies. It started when President Franklin Roosevelt signed a secret order in June 1939 putting the FBI (and the Army and Navy to a lesser extent) in charge of homeland security, including espionage, sabotage, and subversion. In June 1940, we were also asked to collect foreign intelligence in Central and South America. Our ensuing “Special Intelligence Service,” or SIS—a little-known initiative even now—ended up producing a trove of intelligence and outing some 887 Axis spies. Though later dissolved with the creation of the CIA, the SIS laid the groundwork for our network of international offices, which are vital to our ability to combat global crime and terror today. And overall, our work before and during the war ensured that not a single act of enemy-directed sabotage was carried out on U.S. soil.
Intelligence was not new to the FBI; neither was cooperating with the Army. But in September 1947, these two things started to come together in a powerful way when Special Agent Wesley Reynolds was briefed on a top secret Army cryptanalytic program and brought decoded Soviet spy messages back to the Bureau. In the spring of 1948, Special Agent Robert Lamphere became interested in these messages and combined his expertise and the Bureau’s growing knowledge of Soviet espionage with the work of the Army’s brilliant cryptanalyst Meredith Gardner. Together, the two began to make sense of Soviet telegrams sent from the U.S. and other western countries during World War II. Soon they were on the trail of Soviet spies like Judith Coplon, Klaus Fuchs, Julius Rosenberg, and many others. Their work and that of their successors—a project now known as Venona—allowed the FBI and its partners to identify more than 100 Soviet agents, keep traitors from accessing crucial national secrets, and start moving more proactively against Soviet intelligence in the 1950s and beyond. When Venona was declassified in 1995, it led to a significant re-evaluation of Cold War history.
By the early 1960s the civil rights movement was starting to make headway in America, but the backlash from the KKK and others was growing. When three young men who had volunteered to help register African-American voters in Mississippi disappeared suddenly on June 21, 1964, President Johnson called on the FBI to investigate, and we did so rigorously. Within a short time, we found the young men’s burnt-out station wagon (thus the famous case name “MIBURN”), located their bodies, and gathered important evidence that led to indictments. Although it took a long time (decades, tragically) to secure a measure of justice in the courtroom, national outrage over the crime helped spur passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Together with the Civil Rights Act of 1964, these laws—for the first time—put real teeth into the FBI’s ability to defend the rights and freedoms of all Americans. We’ve used them to great effect ever since.
8) October 15, 1970 – New Law of the Land
In the fall of 1970, Congress passed the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, commonly called “RICO,” as part of a larger bill. What a huge milestone it turned out to be. Finally, the FBI had the legal muscle to go after criminal enterprises like the Mafia the right way—investigating their entire organizations, leaders and all, instead of just individuals who had committed a crime. Thanks to this legislation and other new approaches (like using undercover agents and Title III wiretaps to gather evidence), we were soon working with our partners to dismantle entire mob families from the top down and putting a serious dent in the Mafia’s corrupting and violent ways. We’ve also used the law over the years to combat street gangs, drug rings, corruption activities, and even terrorist financing activities in this country.
During the early 1970s, especially after J. Edgar Hoover died in May 1972, revelations began to surface about potential abuses in the intelligence community. In 1975, on the heels of Watergate and the changing political climate it engendered, Senator Frank Church opened a series of hearings unlike any before into domestic intelligence issues. Front and center was the FBI, which was sharply criticized for its investigation of Dr. Martin Luther King, its surveillance practices, and other concerns. In response, the Bureau accelerated its re-evaluation of its domestic security programs and worked with the Attorney General to craft guidelines governing domestic security operations. These changes established clearer parameters for FBI cases and made agents more respectful than ever of the need to protect constitutional rights.
A pair of FBI employees inside the Pentagon shortly after the 9/11 attacks
In one horrific morning, everything changed for America—and for the FBI. The attacks quickly became the most massive investigation in our history, with a quarter of all agents and support personnel directly involved. And even before the dust settled, we had a new overriding mission: to stop terrorists before they strike. The FBI had prevented dozens of terrorist plots before 9/11—including nearly 60 during the 1990s alone. But these attacks showed that our strategic capabilities had to improve—that we needed to be more forward-leaning, more predictive, a step ahead of the next germinating threat. What followed was one of the most far-reaching transformations in FBI history, as we strengthened our counterterrorism and intelligence capabilities in profound new ways. The result has been innumerable successes over the past seven years, from heading off developing plots here in the U.S. to helping take out key terrorist operatives overseas by sharing key intelligence and information.
Community News You Can Use
Mr. Schiff: Hi, welcome to "FBI 100, A Closer Look." I'm Neal Schiff of the Bureau's Office of Public Affairs along with FBI Historian Dr. John Fox. John, the FBI has a lot of major successes over the years that it has served the American public, but sometimes we make mistakes…
Dr. Fox: "Sure Neal. Any agency that's lasted as long as the FBI and has done as many things as it has, is going to make mistakes. Perhaps our biggest one was our involvement in the Teapot Dome Affair in the mid 1920s."
Mr. Schiff: That was a political scandal, wasn't it, John?
Dr. Fox: "At the time Warren Harding had been our President. He had brought in a number of his political cronies into office. And one of them, Albert Fall, the Secretary of the Interior, was actually involved in a big bribery scandal and the Bureau was investigating it. But the problem was, at the time, the Bureau wasn't what it is today. In many ways, it was more of a political organization. People were appointed because of patronage. And its Director, William Burns, had deep connections to a private business he was running, and often mixed the two."
Mr. Schiff: Now, Warren Harding, though, had died as this was breaking out in the news. What did the new president do?
Dr. Fox: "Mr. Harding, of course, had died of food poisoning as some of this was getting going. And Calvin Coolidge came into office and had to face a political scandal. He asked the Attorney General to resign; he ended up firing William Burns who was Director of the Bureau, and had to appoint someone basically to clean house."
Mr. Schiff: And what impact did that have on the FBI?
Dr. Fox: "It led to, among other things, the appointment of John Edgar Hoover, who then served as Director for 48 years. And Hoover was given very strict marching orders on how to reform the Bureau by Attorney General Harlan Fiske Stone who came in to clean house. Hoover immediately began to purge the roles of political appointees. He reinstituted very strict hiring criteria for new agents to ensure that the training of those agents was very strong and basically revamp the entire way that the Bureau did business. It was a series of changes that really set the Bureau on the road to its emergence in the 1930s during the whole gangster era that we've talked about a couple of times. And the FBI's emergence as a professional law enforcement and national security agency."
Mr. Schiff: From the FBI's Public Affairs office, along with Bureau Historian Dr. John Fox, I'm Neal Schiff with "FBI 100, A Closer Look."
Monday, July 14, 2008
The Southeast region event will take place at The Fox Theatre in Atlanta on Tuesday, Sept. 9, 2008, and will consist of a keynote address by the Archivist's (of the United States) lawyer on challenges associated with the management of ephemeral electronic records, plus several sessions relating to disaster preparedness and response, collaborative records management tools such as Web 2.0, records management training, and implementation of Records Management Applications.
A buffet lunch and docent-conducted tours will round out the event. All interested faculty and students within Atlanta's academic community are invited. More information will be forthcoming in Campus Review and Laker Lines.
Friday, July 11, 2008
July 13-19 and July 20-26
Atlanta’s historic sites may not be able to speak, but thanks to Georgia State history professor Timothy Crimmins, they have a voice.
Crimmins and fellow Georgia State faculty members Glenn Eskew and Akinyele Umoja are leading “The Problem of the Color Line: Atlanta Landmarks and Civil Rights History,” a workshop for elementary through high school teachers.
Participants in the workshop, funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities, will visit several sites in Atlanta key to the civil rights movement, attend lectures by faculty from Georgia State and other area schools, and meet with those who participated in the demonstrations that characterized the struggle for equality. At the Fox Theatre, one of the sites on the landmarks tour, participants will enter the venue twice — through the main entrance, once reserved for white patrons, and through the back entrance previously used for black theatergoers. As time moves away from the days of segregation, it’s a rare chance to better understand the social and political climate of the past.
“The understanding of how the color line functioned and what the civil rights movement was protesting against begins to fade,” Crimmins says. “Going through the Fox Theatre and seeing it from the standpoint of the white patrons who have come to the theatre and then to go and see what it was like for African-Americans who would have gone there is a great revelatory experience for many of the teachers.”
Throughout the course of the weeklong workshop, now in its second year, participating teachers put together lesson plans using Atlanta’s historic landmarks to teach their students about the civil rights movement. The teachers also share project ideas with each other long after the workshop is over through a special Web site.
“For me, the purpose of preservation is so the history that the sites represent can be told,” Crimmins says. “We have just an incredible number of sites here in Atlanta that tell a very important chapter of American history, and so having been involved in the preservation of these sites, now is a chance to use these sites to teach history.”
Tuesday, July 8, 2008
The Duke University Libraries has launched a digital collection of about 5,000 photographs shot primarily in China between 1917 and 1932 by Sidney Gamble, grandson of Proctor and Gamble co-founder James Gamble. The searchable collection is online at library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/gamble/.
Gamble, a sociologist, China scholar and avid amateur photographer, traveled extensively in China from Liaoning province in the northeast to Guangdong province in the south and to the western edge of Sichuan province along the border of Tibet. The web publication of the Sidney D. Gamble Photograph Collection makes all of his China photographs publicly accessible for the first time.
On four trips to China, Gamble photographed the natural and architectural landscapes as well as scenes of rural and urban life. He also documented events such as the flood of 1918 in Tianjin, student demonstrations in 1919 in Beijing and Sun Yat-sen’s state funeral in 1925.
“Because Gamble was not a professional photographer, but rather a social scientist conversant in Chinese, his photographs of Chinese people engaged in the daily activities of life are like no other photographs of the period,” said Nancy Jervis, an anthropologist and China specialist who has been visiting China for three decades. “They are a stark reminder of what has been gained and lost in the years since.”
Gamble used the China photographs to illustrate the first published social survey of Peking (Beijing), which he completed in 1921, and three economic surveys he later authored. However, most of his China images were not seen by the public during his lifetime. The photographs came to light when Gamble’s daughter, the late Catherine Curran, discovered the collection at the family home in 1984, 15 years after her father’s death.
Curran created the Sidney D. Gamble China Studies Foundation in 1986 to preserve the images and to make them available for exhibit. Since then, about 250 of the pictures have been displayed in multiple venues in North America and Asia, including the China Institute in New York City and the Museum of History in Beijing.
Curran, who died in 2007, gave the entire collection to Duke’s Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library in 2006.
Friday, July 4, 2008
Fayetteville and its people are busy in early 1913. Join me in a look at the headlines of the Fayetteville News.
The Fayetteville News
January 13, 1913
Mr. W.C. Parrott will move on Fairburn St. next week, he comes from the western part of the county, and will be with the road gang this year.
Miss Winna Blalock Left this week for Milledgeville, where she will enter the G.N. and I College. She is attentive to her work, and no doubt will make a good Pupil.
Mr. James Harper, of Fife, has purchased the barber shop of Gilmore Garland, and promises a first class shop. Mr. and Mrs. Harper belong to the best families of the county and our people are glad they are to make their home here another year.
Mr John Cox and family have moved to their home near Sandy Creek, They have resided here several years, and we regret to lose their citizenship, but congratulate the people of that community in having them as neighbors this year.
Miss. Hermie Means, educated at Bessie Tift Collage and Georgia State Normal with six years experience, will have charge of the primary Dept of the Fayetteville high school. Miss. Means comes to us highly recommended and is splendidly equipped by training and experience to teach primary pupils.
Miss mattie Cena Blalock and Mr. L.A, Ingram were married Tuesday morning, Rev. W.J. DeBardeleben performed the impressive ceremony in the presence of a few friends, the wedding being a quiet one. Miss. Blalock is the daughter of the Hon. A.O. Blalock, is of fine character and was on of our cities most popular young ladies. Mr. Ingram was reared in Henry County and came here about sixteen months ago. he is industrious and has proven to be one of our best young business men.
Judge S.B. Lewis retires as Ordinary and chairman of the Board of Commissioners. Mr. J.J. Davis assumed the duties of Ordinary and chairman of the board of Commissioners Wednesday. T.M. Kerlin and A.A. Coggins assumed their duties as commissioners. J.W. Dison and J.Q. Landrum assumed their duties as members.
Researched and submitted by CB Glover